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北木教育 > 托福 > 托福文章 > TOEFL实用语法系列——如何理解长难句之非谓语动词2

TOEFL实用语法系列——如何理解长难句之非谓语动词2

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发布时间:2018-09-14北京智赢

上期文章简单介绍了非谓语动词及其三种形式:to do/doing/done,本期文章,我们将针对to do,即动词不定式,做详细讲解。

定义:指动词的一种不带词形变化从而不指示人称、数量、时态的形式。它之所以被叫做不定式,是因为动词不被限定,或者说不被词形变化所局限。

简单来说,就是介词to后面跟动词原型,并可在句子中充当除谓语外的所有成份。

 

不定式做主语:To see is to believe.

不定式做宾语:I hope to see you again.

不定式做定语:See if you can get the car started.

不定式做状语:He went to the hospital to be examined.

不定式做表语:My work is to clean the room every day.

 

不定式还可跟在很多词后面:

疑问词+不定式:When to leave for London has not been decided yet.

形容词+不定式:He finds it hard to make friends.

名词+不定式:It’s our duty totake good care of the old.

代词+不定式:Give her something to eat.

动词+不定式:Don’t forget toturn off the lights.

介词+不定式:We have no choice but to wait.

 

由此可见,不定式在句子中,表示两种意思:表目的/表将来

比如want to do,想要做什么,表目的;

forget todo,表将来,不要忘了去做某事

不定式表否定:在不定式前加notnever即可,如:

Tell himnot to open the door.

 

注意:大多数动词后面接不定式,但也有例外,举几个常见的例子,其它的就要靠大家课下积累了:

直接跟doletmakehave do

直接跟doingenjoyminddoing

均可,但表达意思不一样:

rememberto do(记得去做某事)/doing(记得做过某事)

forget todo(忘记去做某事)/doing(忘记做过某事)

to后面跟doinglook forward to doing/pay attention to doing/get used to doing

 

不定式还可表达被动语态和时态:

不定式可表被动:It’s an honor to be invited to your party.

不定式可表进行:He seems to be drinking something.

不定式可表完成:I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.

不定式可表完成进行:She is known to have been wreaking on theproblem for many years.

 

总之,不定式的用法非常灵活,但有一点必须牢记,不定式,to do,不能做谓语。