北木教育 > 托福 > 托福文章 > 你不知道的TOEFL实用语法系列——如何理解长难句之非谓语动词3

你不知道的TOEFL实用语法系列——如何理解长难句之非谓语动词3

发表时间 2018年09月14日作者William来源北京智赢

文章摘要
往期文章介绍了非谓语动词的三种形式:to do/doing/done,以及如何分辨谓语动词和非谓语动词,本期文章,我们将针对doing,即现在分词/动名词,做详细讲解。

doing对应了两个不同的中文名称——现在分词和动名词,这两个不同的名称,分别强调了doing在句子中不同的作用和所充当的不同成份,我们没有必要刻意区分这两个概念,只要记住现在分词强调的是doing的动词属性,有时还可以将其视为形容词,而动名词这个概念强调的则是doing的名词属性。在不去刻意区分现在分词和动名词这两个中文概念的前提下,我们将doing的用法。

 

总结如下:

 

1.doing最常见的用法,就是和be动词一起构成进行时:

 

They areplaying football.

 

They willbe playing football.

 

They wereplaying football, while others were singing.

 

2.doing做定语:说明被修饰词的性质和特征。

 

There wasa terrible noise following the sudden burst of light.

 

He saw aflying bird and raised his bow.

 

I wassatisfied with the exciting speech.

 

3.doing做状语:表示正在进行的或主动的动作,此时分词的逻辑主语就是主句的主语,因此一定要注意人称、时态和语态的一致性。

 

Thevisiting(doing做定语) minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, addingdoing做状语,主语是minister that he had enjoyed his stay here.

 

Seeing(doing做状语,主语是we from the top of the hill, we can findthat the city looks more beautiful.

 

Havinginvited(doing做状语,可以体现完成时,主语是we him here to speak, wed better go to his lecture.

 

Havingbeen called a geek(doing做状语,可以体现被动语态,主语是he for a very long time, he needed moretime to recover before he could go back to school.

 

4.doing做补语:宾语与作宾补充的现在分词之间存在逻辑上的主谓关系,即宾语是现在分词动作的发出者。

 

I saw himsinging(doing做补语,主语是saw的宾语him now.

 

Don't havethe students studying(doing做补语,主语是have的宾语thestudents all day.

 

doing做状语时,逻辑主语是主句的主语,如何与doing做补语进行区分?

只有以下动词,可以接宾语补语,也就是说以下这些单词后面跟doing时,doing动作的发出者,是以下这些单词的宾语:

 

感官动词:seehearwatchfeelnoticeobservekeepfindlisten tolook at

 

She sawhim playing(doing做补语,主语是saw的宾语him pool.她看到他在打台球。

 

使役动词:havegetcatchleaveset

 

Theirmother caught them watching(doing做补语,主语是caught的宾语them TV.

 

当然,也可理解为以上动词后跟doing一起组成固定搭配。

 

5.doing做表语:相当于形容词

 

Travellingis interesting but tiring. 

 

Theargument is very convincing. 

 

The filmis moving.译为“这电影很感人。”要和进行时区分开。

 

6.doing做名词:doing充当名词成份,常被视为不可数名词,指代一类事物,谓语动词要用单数(drawingpaintingreadingwedding是例外,均有复数形式)

 

Swimming(doing充当名词成份,做句子主语) is a goodthing.

 

Seeing(doing充当名词成份,做句子主语) is believing(doing充当名词成份,做句子表语).

 

doing的用法总结如上,但还有以下2点,需要注意区分:

 

1.My hobbyis swimming(doing充当名词成份)

可改为:Swimmingdoing充当名词成份) is my hobby.

The storyis interesting(doing充当形容词成份).

则不可改为:Interesting is the story.

因此可用主语、表语互换的方法来区分doing何时做名词,何时做形容词。

 

2.aswimming(doing充当形容词成份,做定语) boy一个正在游泳的男孩 

= A boy isswimming.

a swimming(doing充当名词成份,做定语)suit游泳衣 

= a suitfor swimming.

a swimming(doing充当名词成份,做定语) pool 游泳池

= a poolfor swimming.