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基础知识|英语阅读逻辑关系汇总

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发布时间:2019-01-30 英培教育

英语文章中都会存在很多逻辑关系,如果无法理清这些关系,就无法准确掌握文章的主旨脉络。所以,掌握这些逻辑关系对我们理清文章关系是有很大帮助的。逻辑关系包含以下几种关系:因果关系、递进关系、解释关系、转折关系、对比关系和比较关系。那么,在英文文章中,我们可以通过什么标志确定文章的逻辑关系呢?接下来,将给大家详细讲解一下这些关系。

  1. 因果关系

  示例:因为 A 所以 B。

  常见标志:Because (of), cause, in that, for, as, since, due to, so, so that, hence, therefore, thereby, thus, as a result (of), result from, result in, accordingly, consequently, so...that, so...as to, lead to, derive from, reflect, present, bespeak, on the basis of, be based on, portray, imply, make, spring from, given, if...then, when...then, as long as, require, rely on, depend on, resort to, according to, by way of, considering, on account of, in view of

  注意:

  (1)分词短语做状语,通常表示因果。

  (2)伴随状语通常表示因果。

  (3)条件关系以及「目的-手段-结果」关系看成是广义的因果关系。

  例句:

  Because of his incompetence, we lost a lot of business.

  Many illnesses result from lack of exercise.Rainstorms cause damage every year.

  These experiments leads to many great discoveries.

  The decline in sales is due to several factors.

  As a result, physicians may be reluctant to treat the mother aggressively at the time of initial diagnosis.

  In view of the prisoner's good character hitherto, he was placed on probation.


  2. 递进关系

  特点:递进后项与递进前项相比,方向相同但程度更深。

  示例:教室里很安静,甚至连一跟针掉在地上都听的一清二楚。

  常见标志:even, indeed ..., not only ... but also, let alone, furthermore

  例句:

  He refused to give the document up, even under pressure.

  Scientists must learn to communicate with the public, be willing to do so, and indeed consider it their duty to do so.

  She not only finished the task ahead of time, but also came to help us.


  3. 解释关系

  特点:解释内容与被解释对象同义。

  示例: 二氧化碳分子 — 由两个氧原子与一个碳原子通过共价键构成。

  常见标志:冒号 (:), 破折号 (—), 同位语, 定语从句,Be 动词

  例句:

  The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong.

  (同位语从句用来解释说明 the idea)

  There are 50 boys in my class, who can speak English very well.

  (非限制性定语从句用来解释说明 50 boys)


  4. 转折关系

  特点:转折前项与转折后项语义相反。

  示例:尽管学习很累,可是我仍旧坚持着。

  注意: 如果转折前后描述的是相同主体,则不可以是绝对意义的相反。

  例如:A 还活着,但是 A 已经死了。(错误)A 现在还活着,但是将来 A 还是会死。(正确)A 在这一方面做得很好,但是在其它方面不行。(正确)

  常见标志:albeit, although, though, even though, but, as, however, despite, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, while, regardless of, even if, even though, yet, and yet, in fact

  例句:

  The fields give high and stable yields regardless of climatic circumstances.

  He still went home, notwithstanding the midnight.(尽管,仍然)

  She carries her age very well, she looks 50 but in fact she's more than 60.


  5. 对比关系

  特点:对比的两部分语义相反。

  示例:她没有把时间花在学习上,而是浪费在看电影上了。

  常见标志:in contrast, on the contrary, far from, on the other hand, rather than, instead of, not A but B, more A than B; shift from A to B, decay from A to B, reconcile A with B, replace A with B,

  distinguish from A to B, oscillate between A and B, A is preferable to B, endorse A over B

  例句:

  You pay your income tax going in, rather than going out.

  This book is not mine, but hers.

  They need to shift from farming to industry.


  6. 比较关系

  特点:比较的对象要有可比性。

  示例:A 的数量比 B 多一倍。

  常见标志:比较级 + than (bigger than, more than …), as … as

  例句:

  That would be more than I have expected.

  Lily was prettier than her sister.

  He can speak English as well as she does.


  以上就是关于英语阅读逻辑关系的汇总及讲解,掌握这些逻辑关系有利于我们读懂英文文章,理清文章中的各种逻辑关系,也有助于我们掌握文章主旨大意,这对于我们做对阅读题目还是有很大帮助的。大家也可以尝试着在阅读文章中寻找这些标志词,进而检验一下我们对这些知识点的运用。

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