示例：因为 A 所以 B。
常见标志：Because (of), cause, in that, for, as, since, due to, so, so that, hence, therefore, thereby, thus, as a result (of), result from, result in, accordingly, consequently, so...that, so...as to, lead to, derive from, reflect, present, bespeak, on the basis of, be based on, portray, imply, make, spring from, given, if...then, when...then, as long as, require, rely on, depend on, resort to, according to, by way of, considering, on account of, in view of
Because of his incompetence, we lost a lot of business.
Many illnesses result from lack of exercise.Rainstorms cause damage every year.
These experiments leads to many great discoveries.
The decline in sales is due to several factors.
As a result, physicians may be reluctant to treat the mother aggressively at the time of initial diagnosis.
In view of the prisoner's good character hitherto, he was placed on probation.
常见标志：even, indeed ..., not only ... but also, let alone, furthermore
He refused to give the document up, even under pressure.
Scientists must learn to communicate with the public, be willing to do so, and indeed consider it their duty to do so.
She not only finished the task ahead of time, but also came to help us.
示例： 二氧化碳分子 — 由两个氧原子与一个碳原子通过共价键构成。
常见标志：冒号 (:), 破折号 (—), 同位语, 定语从句，Be 动词
The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong.
（同位语从句用来解释说明 the idea）
There are 50 boys in my class, who can speak English very well.
（非限制性定语从句用来解释说明 50 boys）
例如：A 还活着，但是 A 已经死了。（错误）A 现在还活着，但是将来 A 还是会死。（正确）A 在这一方面做得很好，但是在其它方面不行。（正确）
常见标志：albeit, although, though, even though, but, as, however, despite, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, while, regardless of, even if, even though, yet, and yet, in fact
The fields give high and stable yields regardless of climatic circumstances.
He still went home, notwithstanding the midnight.（尽管，仍然）
She carries her age very well, she looks 50 but in fact she's more than 60.
常见标志：in contrast, on the contrary, far from, on the other hand, rather than, instead of, not A but B, more A than B; shift from A to B, decay from A to B, reconcile A with B, replace A with B,
distinguish from A to B, oscillate between A and B, A is preferable to B, endorse A over B
You pay your income tax going in, rather than going out.
This book is not mine, but hers.
They need to shift from farming to industry.
示例：A 的数量比 B 多一倍。
常见标志：比较级 + than (bigger than, more than …), as … as
That would be more than I have expected.
Lily was prettier than her sister.
He can speak English as well as she does.