W.E.B. Du Bois’ exhibit of African American history and culture at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of a world of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Bois believed that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greater understanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theories and because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely to theorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts that would shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vast generalizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements of society and the working contributions of individual people to a vast functioning social structure.
1. The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs to Spencerian sociologists?
A. Theorizing is important to the understanding of human actions
B. Vast generalizations have limited value.
C. Data gathering is a relatively unimportant part of sociological research.
D. Sociology should focus on the living elements of society rather than cultural artifacts.
E. Particulars are more important than universals.
2. The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about sociology?
A. It should contribute to the betterment of society.
B. It should study what people actually do.
C. It should focus on how existing social structures determine individual behavior.
Favorable environments do not necessarily lead to the occurrence of plant cultivation. South China is warmer and moister than North China and the Yangtze Basin, with wild rice and highly abundant natural resources. Yet archaeological data indicate that cereal cultivation did not occur in this region until approximately 7,000 to 6,500 years ago. This cultivation was likely a result of cultural contact with and expansion from the Yangtze Basin. Clearly, environmental factors were important for the occurrence of cultivation in China, but were not the absolute determining factors. While incipient cultivation might occur in areas of relatively abundant resources, it may not occur in areas of very abundant resources, such as South China, where foraging might be a more efficient way of life.
1. The author implies which of the following about natural resources in South China prior to 6,500 years ago?
A. Their abundance may have actually served to discourage the development of plant cultivation.
B. They were not as abundant as most archaeologists have maintained.
C. They led indirectly to cultural contact with peoples from the Yangtze Basin.
D. Their importance has been downplayed by scholars studying the beginnings of plant cultivation in South China.
E. They had little influence on the types of plants that were eventually cultivated in South China.
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about plant cultivation in the Yangtze Basin?
A. It occurred in spite of an unfavorable climate.
B. It occurred prior to 6,500 years ago.
C. It occurred somewhat later than it occurred in North China.
D. It occurred largely because of the abundance of wild rice in the region.
E. It occurred as a result of cultural contact with South China.